Instruments in Indian Sculpture

The polished, ivory-ornamented elegance of modern Indian musical instru¬ ments such as the veena, the sitar and the sarod affords little idea as to how primitive were the instruments from which they are descended.

By: Diksha Sharma

Posted on: 9/11/2020 View : 217


The polished, ivory-ornamented elegance of modern Indian musical instruments such as the veena, the sitar and the sarod affords little idea as to how primitive were the instruments from which they are descended. In fact, the main families of existing musical instruments can all be traced to various devices of primitive man to make music which sounded different from his own voice. Amongst the commonly accepted main classes of instruments, namely the string, the wind and the percussion, the last mentioned has the earliest origin. Every variety of percussion instrument contributes rhythm and dynamism to whatever type of music it accompanies. Rhythm comes naturally to man, since everything in creation moves to it. It is man’s oldest impulse. The ceremonial dancing of primitive man was a great outlet for his emotions, both when experiencing pleasure and when appeasing the God he feared. The basic impulse of rhythm in him led him to standardise the various forms of emotional expression he was familiar with and to create and design rhythmic instruments. The simplest accompaniment of the dances of primitive man was provided by the dancers themselves. They marked time by stamping their feet and clapping their hands in simple rhythms. Sometimes they kept time by beating their chests, flanks and bellies with their hands. These methods might will have been the first pointers to a drum. Gradually rattles came into use. They were probably first made out of nutshellss, seeds and stones strung together or placed in a hollow gourd, and either suspended from the waist of the dancer or tied to the ankles, so that they sounded sharply in response to each movement. Such early beginnings resulted in the use of cymbals, gongs, bells, ankle-bells (ghunguru), kartal, and so on.

Another rhythmic instrument used by primitive man was the stamping pit. This was just a big hole dug in the ground and covered with bark. People stamped on this lid with their feet and thus produced a sound somewhat like the beating of a large drum. One variation of the stamping pit that emerged sometime later was that instead of being covered with bark the pit in the ground was covered with hide and beaten with long, stout sticks. Such a ‘drum’ was called bhoomi dundubhi, and 9 it was used on such occasions as the Mahavrata ceremony mentioned in the Samhitas and the Brahmanas. A casual banging on a hollow gourd or a human skull might have suggested to primitive man that sound could be amplified by the use of hollowed-out materials. Hallow bamboos or large block of hollowed-out wood covered at both ends were commonly used. The were beaten with thick sticks. It is possible that the sound of wind-swept branches striking against the stretched membrane of a dead animal first gave man the idea of stretching and covering up an open frame with skin. The duff, the khanjari, the tambourine and all drums with open frames are extremely simple in construction. The ancient instrument pataha also belongs to this category. So does the conical drum. There the skin is stretched over a pot which serves as a resonator. Such drums have been in common use all over India since very early imes. Two examples are the bheri and the dundubhi. These ancient drums still survive in the modern nagara and its variations. Without doubt it must have been a little later that barrel-shaped wooden drums covered with skin on both sides came into use. There are numerous varieties of the two-sided drum; the two that are most common and incidentally most represen¬ tative are the dhol and the mridanga. The dhol and its cousins are normally used for weddings, festivals, processions, and other ceremonial occasions. The dholak, the dholki and some other variations are smaller versions of the dhol, while the dhak is a larger version.

The mridanga also called the Pakhawaj in the north, is considered to be the most ancient of the Indian drums. This is also a highly developed percussion instru¬ ment in that it has been the accuracy of pitch and a variety of tone which are uncommon in similar instruments in any other country. The tonal superiority of this instrument is not surprising since it plays a vital role in any concert of Karnatak music. The explicitly stated rhythmic accompaniment required of the mridanga is an organic part of the music as a whole. The tabla is another type of drum with a distinctive shape. It is in fact nothing but a mridanga or pakhawaj in pieces. To overcome the unwieldiness of big drums, portable drums like the damaru, the huruk and the udukku were designed. These small drums are shaped like an hour-glass, flaring out above and below a narrow central waist. They can easily be carried under the arm and are know all over India by different names. A development from the ancient pot drum is the panchamukha vadyam, literally the five-mouthed instrument. The mouths are covered with stretched skin and tho musician plays on them with both hands.The sound produced by each mouth is different but the general quality ofthe sounds is very similar to that produced by the mridanga. Examples of this type of instrument are found at Tiruvarur and Tiruvanikkaval, both in the Tamil region. There is a sculpture in the famous temple at Chidambaram where the panchamukha vadyam features, along with two side drums. An early example of this type of drum belonging to about the 3rd century B.C. has been discovered in the exacavations at Rajgir in the north. In the earlier type of drum, tuning to the required pitch was not easy. The least dampness or change in temperature could disturb the pitch. A most important 10 development in percussion instruments was, therefore, the introduction of multiple skins and multifaced heads as in the mridanga, the pakhawaj and the tabla. Where multi¬ faced drum heads consist of two or three concentric rings of skin, it is easy to tune the instrument to the desired pitch and produce a wide variety of percussioned sounds. In India wind instruments, particularly those belonging to the horn group, are essentially meant to be played in the open air. They are the chief producers of sound on all festivals and other ceremonial occasions.

Wind instruments also form an important part of temple music. The oldest ancestor of all metallic horns is the curved buffalo horn. Horns like the fcombu, the shringa and the kahala probably developed out of a megaphoneshaped instrument into which early man spoke or sang for the purpose of amplifying his voice. Out of this simple megaphone evolved the actual horn in which the air column within the instrument is set in vibration by means of the lips of the player. The rather terrifying sound of the horn was associated with all sorts of ceremonial and magical rites of primitive people. The piercing quality of its tone made it useful for giving signals—to summon an army, to announce important events and to issue public invitations for festivals and processions. The horn is played in isolation as well as in accompaniment with other instruments like drums and gongs. It possesses a rather hoarse sound and is not capable of producing many notes, No attempt has been made to play it scientifically and indeed its proper compass is not even understood. One of the earliest wind instruments to develop was the flute, called by many popular names like bansuri, venu, and murali. This is an obvious sequel to the phenomenon in nature of the wind humming and whistling through bamboos which have been bored through by bees and insects. This is a favourite image of the poet Kalidasa. The idea of producing the necessary current of air though the mouth and then blowing it through a bamboo must have followed naturally and resulted in the development of the flute. The next stage was the invention of ‘stops’ or finger-holes in the flute so tnat the player could produce both high and low notes. This invention must have been hailed as a stroke of genius. There are several varieties of flutes. Some are held vertically away from the face while others are held transversely, parallel to the eyebrow. Lord Krishna is always shown playing the transverse flute. The art of producing sound from a double reed is very ancient. The simplest example of producing sound from a reed is a blade of grass held tightly between the thumbs of both hands, as we all know from the days of our youth. When this blade of grass is folded together it becomes a ‘double reed’. When blown into, the two halves of the reed vibrate against each other. The slit between the two sides of the reed opens and closes alternatively, allowing the air to enter the instru¬ ment at intervals. This folded blade of grass or a pair of leaves tied together and attached to the mouthpiece of a pipe illustrates the principle of the double reed.

In primitive instruments of this type, which are used even now by the aboriginal tribes and common folk, the reeds are thick and of unskilled workmanship, quite different from those of the shahnai and the nagaswaram. The instruments themselves 11 are roughly constructed and produce a general tunelessness that would shock the ears of people accustomed to refined tonal variations. The nagaswaram and the shahnai are essentially open air instruments but modern experts, with their clear technique and fine sense of tone, have brought to these instruments a smoothness comparable to that of a stringed instrument and made them fit for chamber music. The first stringed instrument invented by man was the hunter’s bow. When the hunter shot his arrow, he must have noted that the bowstring produced a pleasant humming sound. If he twanged the bowstring near the cavity of the mouth, the sound was amplified. If he rested the bow on some hollow object, the resonance increased still further. The next discovery probably was that the sound varied with the length of the string. Strings of varying length must then have been attached to the hunting bow. Thus must have evolved the basic principle of the world-famous harp. The fact that a piece of skin stretched over a hollow body such as a pot produces a sound of relatively great volume when caused to vibrate was known to man very early. He used this principle to increase the volume of sound by fastening one end of the string to a drum and thus invented a kind of resonator. He gave one end of the bow the shape of a hollow boat and stretched a skin tightly over it. Several strings were merely tied round the bow shaft and could be tuned only by an elaborate process of unfastening and refastening. This type of bow-shaped veena was apparently very widely used in ancient India as it is frequently represented in sculpture dating from the 3rd century b.c. Such an instrument was called yazh in Tamil.

The yazh is mentioned in several works of Tamil literature. This indicates that the instrument was extensively used by the Dravidian people of southern India. The swaramandal and the piano are the result of a similar development. The bamboo ideichord is of very great antiquity and is used by some of the aboriginal tribes in India even today. It consists of a bamboo which is closed on both sides. Part of the wall of this tube is loosened by means of two shallow, longitudinal incisions. Under the string thus obtained, a small bridge is inserted in the centre. The string produces different tones when plucked or struck, the tube serving as a resonator. Sometimes this instrument carries more than one string; and in some cases, the bamboo tube is wholly or partially halved longitudinally so that the instrument can be laid flat on the ground. One variation is obtained by lashing together a dozen bamboos as in a raft. The instrument is found in the bamboo growing regions of India and of South-East Asia. Later on the string lifted out of the wall of the tube was replaced by a stretched string made of materials like flax and gut. Subsequently a series of such strings were stretched over a box-like resonator and the strings were plucked with the fingers. Some of the instruments in this category had as many as a hundred strings, for instance the satatantri veena and the katyayana veena. The swaramandal and the quanun adhere to the same principle. These two instruments reigned for thousands of years but could not hold their own against the impact of more developed instruments like the modern veena and the sarod. The quanun 12 became the santur of Kashmir and the Middle East where the strings are struck with small wooden hammers. The origin of the present-day piano is also traceable to these instruments. The next stage of development is the construction of instruments with a finger-board which is separate from the body. It is convenient to sub-divide this group into; one, where the instruments have a long neck, for instance the tamhura and the veena and two, where the neck of the instrument is a mere narrowing of the instrument, as in the case of the sarod and the rabab.

A prototype of the first kind is a device where a stick is insered into a small, resonating body such as a tortoise shell or a cocoanut shell and a string attached to it. By pressing the string against the neck or by touching it lightly with the fingers, the string is shortened, thereby producing a rise in pitch. The variation in the sound according to the length of the string led to the use of fretted instruments where the player could determine the pitch by varying, with his fingers, the length of the string that is to vibrate. Thus, more than one note could be produced from the same string. The frets usually consisted of gut strings tied round the neck or the finger-board as in the present-day rabab. The more primitive instruments of this group are the kinnari and its variations. The kinnari is still used in certain parts of Andhra Pradesh. The finger-board rests on three gourds and the strings are supported on crude frets made of bone or shells. The bin or the northern veena, the saraswati veena of the south, the sitar and the surbahar are examples of fretted instruments with comparatively longer necks. These are representative of the highly developed stringed instruments of the plucked variety today. Stringed instruments with short necks appear very early in musical history. They were first made out of single blocks of wood. The top was flat and the back convex. The body tapered towards the short neck. Early examples of this type are found in Gandhara reliefs where the neck with the pegs is slightly extended, the body is pear-shaped, and the instrument is played with plectrums. The modern rabab belongs to this group. The rabab remained a plucked instru¬ ment for a long time but subsequently began to be used as a bowed instrument. The belly was made of wood and covered with skin. The sides slightly pinched to give more freedom for bowing. With this modification, it became the European rebec with its curved peg box and wooden sounding board. By lengthening the finger-board, it could acquire the characteristics of the viola and the violin. But the old Indian rabab still exists in its original form, except for the pinched belly, although it is played by plucking with the fingers.

It is a popular instrument of Kashmir and is common in the rest of northern India also. The modern sarod is only a modification of the original rabab, to which a metal plate is added. This plate is fixed on the finger-board and the instrument is play with a plectrum. It is generally agreed that the earliest form of stringed instrument in India was some type of musical bow, or a hunting bow across which a string was tightly drawn. This musical bow was plucked with the finger or struck with a short stick. To increase the resonance, the back of the bow was held across the 13 mouth of the performer. Another device was to rest the end on a hollow gourd. Out of this primitive state emerged a stringed instrument consisting of a small half gourd or coconut with a skin table or cover through which a bamboo stick was passed longitudinally. This stick bore a string of twisted hair, v/hich rested on a little wooden bridge placed on the skin table. Such an arrangement consti¬ tuted the ektara of India which soon produced its close relative, the two-stringed dotara of Bengal. Nowadays the dotara has four strings. These early types of stringed instruments are still used by the aboriginal tribes of India. One of the earliest stringed instruments played with a bow was called the ravanastra. This instrument was associated with Ravana. What it looked like is rather doubtful but in some parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan, there exists even today a primitive instrument called the ravcinhatho which is used by rural people. This has two strings of different kinds, one made with a species of flax and the other of horsehair. The hollow part of this instrument is half' a coconut shell which has been polished, covered with the dried skin of a lizard and perforated below. The rajnengi bana of Madhya Pradesh, the banam of Orissa and the gogged rajen of the Saori tribes, all belong to the same family. All these instruments are held and played like the modern violin. The modern sarinda or sarangi, if traced back to its primitive stage, would be a drum-like sound box, usually half the section of a bamboo covered in front with a parchment, fitted with two or three strings aud played with a bow.

Later, the instrument was hollowed out of blocks of wood, the top covered with skin and the body extended to form a finger-board. The dotara, the chartar, the dhad sarangi of Punjab, and the chikara of Uttar Pradesh are some simply constructed members of this family of instruments. They are often suspended in front of the body and played with bows to which sometimes ghungurus (bells) are attached, so that a jingling sound accompanies the music. In the centuries that followed, this instrument slowly developed in construction and sympathetic strings were added. This resulted in the modern sarangi which is a fine instrument and is used all over northern India for the accompaniment of vocal music. In the south, the violin has come to stay. The facilities it provides for rendering gamakas and other musical effects peculiar to Karnatak music have made the adoption of the violin so complete that the southerners no longer think of it as a foreign instrument. The sitar with movable frets appeared fairly early in the north. The inven¬ tion of the dilruba and the esraj consisted in a clever combination of the sarangi and the sitar. These instruments have frets like the sitar but are bowed like the sarangi instead of being plucked with the fingers. 14 T

More related articles:

Anuloma Viloma Yogic Breathing For Better Health

Yoga has a message for the human body for the human mind and the human spirit.This is a truism as a healthy body is the prime requisite for success and happiness in life. People are increasingly being convinced that yoga makes for good health contentment and happiness in present day stressful life and is not just an exercise regimen. Know More

7 Important Tips for Yoga Success

Yoga has been proven to relieve stress by using exercises that unify the mind, body, and spirit. If you are new to yoga, these seven tips will start you on the road to a more centered life. Know More

How did Gurukul end

First tell you what were studied in Gurukul of our Sanatan culture tradition .It is necessary to know what was studied in Rishikul after Aryavartas Gurukul. Change your thoughts with this education and remove the popular delusions. Know More

5-minute moving meditation will prepare your mind and body for the day

Morning routines are important. Morning activity that calms your mind and energizes, you can make all the difference between a stressful day and a joyful day. Know More


Without firm foundations a house cannot stand. Without the practice of the principles of yama and niyama, which lay down firm foundations for building character, there cannot be an integrated personality. Practice of asanas without the backing of yama and niyama is mere acrobatics. Know More

Yoga Asanas

Yoga is good for your mind and good for your body. Of the three important components of a balanced fitness program— flexibility, strength, and cardiovascular conditioning— yoga directly provides the first two and has the potential to enhance the third. Scientific studies on the health benefits of yoga have found that it can be useful in a wide range of conditions, including hypertension, asthma, depression, arthritis, heart disease, epilepsy, and cancer. Know More

The Place of Peace

THE rush the turmoil the hurry of modern life are in everybodys mouth as a matter of complaint. I have no time is the commonest of excuses. Know More

Pranayama and Bandhas

Breath is the essence of life. You inhale for the first time shortly after arriving in the world even before your umbilical cord is cut. From that moment on you take approximately seventeen thousand breaths each day,which over a lifetime totals about 500 million breaths. In your final moments on this planet, you exhale for the last time; that breath defines the end of your life. Know More

Chakra Meditation

A different type of meditation involves intoning mantras aloud to create a healing resonance in the mind and body. There are mantras associated with each of the seven energy centers in the body, known as chakras. The chakras are major junction points between consciousness the body, and each one is sociated with a specific vibration. Know More

Meditation Calming a Turbulent Mind

The activity in your mind is communicated to every cell in your body. When your mind is turbulent, your messenger molecules communicate turbulence to your cells, tissues, and organs. If you can quiet your mind, you can send messages of peace and harmony to every cell in your body. To experience the real essence of yoga—the full integration of body, mind, and spirit—you need to develop the ability to calm your mental turbulence Know More

The Law of Dharma (or Purpose in Life)

The seventh spiritual law is the Law of Dharma, which states that every sentient being has a purpose in life. You have unique abilities and your own way of expressing them. There are needs in this world for which your specific talents are ideally suited, and when the world’s needs are matched with the creative expression of your talents, your purpose—your dharma—is realized. Know More

The Law of Detachment

The sixth spiritual law of success is the Law of Detachment which reveals a great paradox of life. In order to acquire something in this world, you have to relinquish your attachment to it. This doesn’t mean you give up the intention to fulfill your desire—you simply give up your attachment to the outcome. Know More

The Law of Intention and Desire

The fifth spiritual law of success is the Law of Intention and Desire, which is based upon the recognition that at the level of the quantum field there is nothing other than energy and information. This quantum field, which is really just another name for the field of pure potentiality, is influenced by intention and desire. Know More

The Law of Least Effort

The Law of Least Effort states that nature’s intelligence functions with effortless ease. If you look at the ebb and flow of the tides, the blossoming of a flower, or the movement of the stars, you do not see nature straining. There is rhythm and balance in the natural world, and when you are in harmony with nature, you can make use of the Law of Least Effort by minimizing your effort and maximizing your effect. Know More

The Law of Karma

The third spiritual law of success pertains to karma, or cause and effect. Every action we take generates a force of energy that returns to us in kind—as we sow, so we reap.When we consciously choose actions that bring happiness and success to others, the fruit of our karma is happiness and success. Know More

The Law of Pure Potentiality

Through the Low of Pour Portentiality,I can create anything,anytime,anywhere The first spiritual law of success is the Law of Pure Potentiality,which states that at the core of your being you are pure awareness. This realm of pure wareness is the domain of all possibilities and underlies creativity in all its forms. Pure consciousness is your spiritual essence and the source of your joy in life. Know More

The Seven Spiritual Laws of Yoga

The Seven Spiritual Laws of Yoga to the practice of yoga because the principles that underlie yoga are the principles that support a life of balance,flexibility, and vitality. The practice of yoga is practice for life. Success in yoga provides a template for success in life. Know More

Old Home Remedies

Old home remedies have gotten a bad reputation since the rise of the male-dominated medical profession, but some of those old time remedies are just as effective as modern medications. They have even found their way into many of the products that we buy in the drug store. Know More

Natural Remedies For Growing Hair

Natural hair loss remedies come in various forms and the best results are likely to come from using more than one. Know More

Herbal Medicine: The Power To Heal

Traditionally it was believed that the power of herbal medicine to heal rests partly in the plants, partly in the healer and partly in the person being healed. Today, conventional western medicine encourages us to believe that all power lies with the doctors and the medication. Know More

Home Remedies For Hangovers

Stop Your Hangover In Its Tracks The answer is to drink but not alcoho.l Alcoholic drinks actually use up your body's water stores, causing dehydration. This in turn causes some hangover symptoms, so drinking water is a good start. Know More

Home Remedies For A Toothache

Home Remedies is a system of health care which promotes the bodys own self-healing mechanism. It uses natural therapies such as Nutrition, Herbs etc... Know More

The Spiritual Life.

THAT which Is from the oldest Scripture of our race, is really the motto on which I am going to speak to you to-night, and I am gomg to try to trace for you the famous two paths of the finding of the Self - the paths which may be trodden separately, but which for the perfection of Humanity must finally blend mto one. Know More

What Is Astrology?

Astrology is a complex art and science.Astrology is the belief that the alignment of stars and planets affects every individual's mood, personality, and environment, depending on when he was born. Know More

Dispelling Some Common Myths About Astrology

Astrology is not a religion, nor is it affiliated or associated with any religion or with satanism or with any specific belief system. You can believe in and participate in any religion you choose and still practice astrology. Know More

The Place of Peace

THE rush, the turmoil, the hurry of modern life are in everybody's mouth as a matter of complaint. " I have no time ' is the commonest of excuses. Reviews serve for books ; leading articles for political treatises ; lectures for investigation. More and more the attention of men and women is fastened on the superficial things of life ; small prizes of business success, petty crowns of social supremacy, momentary notoriety in the world of politics or of letters - for these things men and women toil, intrigue and strive. Know More


Aspects are an important part of modern astrology. As the planets move in their elongated orbits around the Sun, they form various angular relationships with one another, using the Sun (or Earth) as the center. Know More


Each sign of the Zodiac is represented by a planet. Here are the Planets and some of what they mean: Know More

The Natal Chart

The Natal Chart is a map of your life, at the time of birth its like taking a picture of the planets, the universe stopped at that moment in time. It is what the niverse has to say about who you are and what you may become. Know More

seven Basic Chakras

There are seven basic Chakras in our bodys.Each has a location, a function, an influence, color and many other things.They are the seven centers of energy in the human body. Know More

Attitude of Appreciation

An attitude of gratitude means making it a habit to express thankfulness and appreciation in all parts of your life, on a regular basis, for both the big and small things alike Know More

Forgiving Other People

Forgiveness is a gift you give to yourself. It is not something you do for somebody else. It is not complicated. It is simple. This includes forgiving other people situations and likewise yourself. Know More

Spiritual Thinkings

Spiritual thinking asks us to devote to a different way of thinking than we have been educated and conditioned to do. It is a way to think promoting ... Know More

Spiritual Cleansing

Spiritual cleansing is a process utilized in psychic readings to dispel damaging energy. A lot of people feel that negative energy surrounds us and it responsible for a lot of difficult things that occur within our lives and psychic reading or tarot reading may help. Know More

Be Good To Yourself

You will remain with yourself for the whole life Treat yourself as you treat other people. Do not be so hard on yourself. Chances are you wouldnot tell others that theyare fat, ugly, lazy, dense, un-needed, and so forth Know More

On Some Difficulties of the Inner Life

EVERY one who sets himself in earnest to the living of the Inner Life encounters certain obstacles at the very beginning of the pathway thereto, obstacles which repeat themselves in the experience of each, having their basis in the common nature of men. Know More

Enjoy Exercise

The advantages of exercise are undeniable. It step-ups circulation, flexibility and staying power. Exercise helps to determine mood, weight and sleep and is a central component to living a lively life. A few individuals are lucky enough to have a natural joy for exercise. For everybody else, exercise is a joy worth cultivating. Know More

Spiritual Life for the Man of the World

THE Rev. R. J. Campbell, M.A., who presided, said : In introducing the lecturer to a City Temple audience it is not my desire to indulge in personalities which might be embanassing to her, but I feel it is due to ourselves to say that we recognise in Mrs. Besant one of the greatest moral forces of the day. Know More

Spiritual Thinkings

When youre able to have positive thoughts regardless what is going on – when you are able to see the higher power in all individuals and in all situations – you are well on your way to spiritual health. Know More


Lord Shiva is to all men all things. His universality and adaptability have preserved His place in the hearts of men for millennia. The elemental Lord of the Wind, He personified the cataclysmic forces of nature and was the Lord of Destruction. Know More


The origin of Shiva Ratri, the night of Lord Shiva, is related in a fable. In ancient times near the City of Light, Varanasi, there lived a violent and cruel hunter. Whilst hunting in the woods one day, he killed so many birds that he had trouble carrying them all home. He grew tired from the weight of his catch and was frequently forced to stop and rest. Know More

Get Rid Of Your Bad Habits

Your health and weight is decided by your eating habits.If you ask individuals what's the significance of habit, many will give bad habits the difficult press, and say they're negative processes that individuals do again and again, like smoking, gambling, over eating, and procrastination. Know More


Yoga means union of man with his Higher Self. It is an ancient discipline that can be traced back as far as the third century B.C., when the forest dwelling ascetics broke away from the traditional material values of society, and sought to free them selves from the chains of karma. Know More

Towards Mental Purity

There are a number of simple rites the performance of which will free you from inner impurities. From generation to generation our forefathers performed them and earned happiness and contentment. We must follow in their footsteps. We do not have to go in search of any new way of life, any new doctrine or belief. Know More

Making all Creatures Happy

In the past, apart from these, our ancestors did puja to the gods, fed guests and performed vaisvadeva which rite is meant for all creatures. You must have some idea of these rites even if you do not perform them. I will speak to you about vaisvadeva. Know More


Every family must perform puja to Isvara. Those who find it convenient to do so may conduct elaborate types of puja after receiving proper initiation into them. Others need perform only a brief puja, not lasting more than ten minutes or so. Office goers must offer at least this brief worship. The sacred bell must ring in every home. Know More


Truthfulness means mind and speech being well integrated. The wise say that speech being at variance with the mind is untruthfulness. Know More


A MILK-MAID used to supply milk to a Brahmin priest living on the other side of a river. Owing to the irregularities of the boat service, she could not supply him milk punctually every day. Once, being rebuked for her coming late, the poor woman said, "What can I do ? I start early from my house, but have to wait for a long time at the riverbank for the boatman and the passengers. Know More


The River Ganges, more than all other rivers, has inspired the hearts of the Indian population through the Ages. The uncounted millions who have prayed on her banks and bathed in her waters from the source to the sea, tell the colourful story of India’s spiritual quest. Know More

How to Control the Mind

What is the obstacle to one-pointed meditation.The answer is the unstill mind. All problems are caused by the mind, by the desires arising in it. It is not easy to control the mind and keep it away effectively from desire. If we ask the mind to think of an object, it seems to obey us for a moment, but soon it takes its own course, wandering off. When I speak to you about meditation and tranquillity, for a moment your mind will perhaps become still and you will be happy. Know More

Join Omdhara spiritual community

Grow your internal being as it has to be, get connection with the one.