HISTORY OF DANCE

The history of Indian classical dance is no longer a matter of conjecture; it is a fact and reality which pervades all parts of India and extends from the earliest levels of civilisation to the present day

By: Diksha Sharma

Posted on: 18/11/2020 View : 74

HISTORY OF DANCE

The history of Indian classical dance is no longer a matter of conjecture; it is a fact and reality which pervades all parts of India and extends from the earliest levels of civilisation to the present day. This mass and volume of material is so extensive that it has been impossible for scholars to bring it together in one single totality. Besides, the art has permeated all others ranging from poetry and literature to architecture, sculpture and painting and naturally music and theatre. The antiquity, vastness and the multiple facets of the art make it impossible to make a total conclusive statement. Nevertheless, through the single distinctive traditions in different parts of India, we can have a glimpse of the rich, strong and vibrant traditions ofthe art from the earliest tunes. India’s prehistory and proto-history also provide sufficient evidence ofthis fact. For example, there is the dancing girl from Mohenjodaro, and the broken torso 01 the Harappan period suggestive ofa dance pose. There are beautiful metaphors and similies in the Vedas based on the art of dance. The most beautiful ofthese are the description of Ushcis, the Dawn. Epithets of dance have been used for the Gods: Indra, Marut, the Asvins, and the Apsaras, all have been spoken of as well-initiated in the Art. Dance, as a profession and as a social activity, has been associated with all significant moments ofthe life cycle. In the epics and purancis, the princes are taught the art of dancing; both Rama and Arjuna were adept in it and, of course, Krishna is the Supreme Dancer. Only a flourishing tradition of performance could have enabled the writer of the Natyasastra, to codify the theatrical art in his monumental work. i—* Roughly speaking, we can divide the history of dance into three or four periods. The first is prehistoric and proto-historic.

This period comprises the evidence found in the cave paintings, engravings, the evidence of Mohenjodaro and the Harappan civilization and the literary evidence which can be had from the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Brahmanas and the epics. The second period may be considered from the second century B.C. to the ninth century A.D. This includes the monuments of the Buddhist stupas such as those of Bharhut, Sanchi, Bhaja, Amravati, Nagaijunakonda, and the caves of Ellora and the temples in different parts of India from Kashmir to Orissa, specially the early Gupta temples and those ofBhuvaneswara. The third period may be considered  from the tenth or eleventh to the eighteenth century A.D. This includes early medieval and late medieval monuments. While there are no literary records of the prehistoric period, in the later half of the first period (Vedic India) and in the second period, Sanskrit exercised outstanding influence on the intellectual and artistic life of the people and its rich literature manifested the all-round development of the arts in the country. This may be considered as a period of unity along with the emergence of some regional styles. In the third period, there was a marked development ofregional architectural, sculptural, pictorial, music and dance styles along with the development of regional literature. One might even add to this a fourth period which may be considered as the period from the late eighteenth or the nineteenth century to contemporary India. This was a period of great political turmoil and at the same time a period in which the arts were resurrected from fragments to make a new artistic whole. It was in the second period that there was the first articulation of a selfconscious understanding of this art.

Had it not been so widely prevalent and popular, it is inconceivable that a monumental treatise like the Natyasastra could be compiled. In the very nature of things, the formulas, the sastras tradition followed the practice and not preceded it They or their masters sought to depict some ofthe poses and movements codified in the Natyasastra especially those identified as the stancis and chciri in the Natyasastra. The motifs in the sculptural tradition were those ofthe tree and woman, the Yaksha and the Yakshini and many others; all these finally crystalised into the dance of Siva and that of Krishna. During this second period, we find that there was an effort at stylisation although none of the monuments and the sculptural relief show that they had arrived at a stereotyped convention merely to be followed or repeated. In Bharhut, Sanchi, Mathura and elsewhere, there are innumerable Yakshas and Yakshinis who stand against tree or pillar, hold branches or birds, stand on dwarfs or animal vehicles i.e. the vahanas. Each of these men and women are seen in a dance pose. Along side are dance scenes with full orchestra. There are many such scenes in the reliefs of Bharhut, Sanchi, Amravati, Nagarjunakonda, Ellora, Pavavrya in Gwalior and other Gupta sites. This is also the period of the emergence of the sculptural figures of gods and goddesses especially Shiva, Durga, Saraswati and Ganesha; each has a dance aspect popularly called the nrittamurti. From this sculptural evidence of the second period, we realise that the dance must have been central to the culture for the sculptor to have been inspired to arrest it in stone repeatedly. Alongside is the evidence of dance in mural paintings ranging from the famous dance scene ofBagh caves to others in Ajanta, Ellora. Sitanavasal and Panamalai. This impression of the pervasive popularity of the dance motif is further reinforced by the evidence available in Sanskrit literature of the classical period especially the Kavya and the Natcikci.

In the epics Ramayana and the Mahabharcita, many dance performances are prescribed. In the works of the poets Bhasa, Kalidasa, Bharavi and others, until the time of Harslia, we encoimter many precise descriptions of dancers and dance recitals. From all this, one can gather that the poet and the dramatist were equally well-versed in the technical intricacies of dance. They appreciated the aesthetic beauty and drew upon this art to structure their poetic or dramatic edifice. As is now recognised, none ofthe plays of Kalidasa or his successors had been conceived of a drama dependent on the spoken word alone. The communication systems employed by the writer take into account not only the verbal communication but also communication through gestures, costumes, decor and above all, the inner states ofbeing which are reflected in involuntary expressions. This tradition of looking at drama not only as the written or the spoken word, but as a configuration of different types of communication techniques was established in India many centuries prior to the writing of the plays of Bhasa or kalidasa. This is evident from the codification ofthese communication techniques in the first treatise on dramaturgy i.e. the Natyasastra. Creative writers and poets were perhaps keenly sensitive to the relationship of the word and the gesture, the gesture and the design, and the system of correspondence, signs and symbols which was prescribed in Brahminical rituals. In course of time, this was taken over by the arts and used as a systematised methodology in the writing of drama to be presented on the stage. Kalidasa and his successors specially Bhavabhuti and Harsha all follow these techniques in writing their dramas. The presentation of Sanskrit plays on the stage is possible only if it is taken into account that movement constitutes an integral part of the communication methodologies. The perfect balance between the verbal called the vachika, the kinetic or gesture called the angika, costume and decor called the aharikci and the involuntary state called the satvikci make a harmonious whole. Later, some dramatists preferred to use only the verbal as the chief instrument of communication. Others depended more on music and song. Yet others relied on movement and there was a flowering out in different branchas or in different directions dependent on the dominant tool of communication. From the Sanskrit ncitaka developed a new genre called the Uprupakas. Judging from texts like the Dasarupakas, it would appear that a distinct form had emerged. In this there was a predominant role of music—vocal and instnunental and movement. Indeed, the beginnings ofthis can be traced to the writings of Kalidasa himself.

The fourth Act of Kalidasa’s play Vikramorvashi cannot be presented on the stage unless movement is considered integral to the verbal. The tradition continues in the plays of Bhavabhuti, Harsha and culminates in the work of Rajasekhara. It is evident that by the time of the writing of the play Karpuramanjari, the dramatic form chiefly utilising the verbal had given place to the musical play. Many examples ofthis could be cited from the dramatic works of the tenth century A. D. Karpuramanjari has been called a Shataka, a theatrical form mentioned in the inscriptions of Bharhut., but ofwhich not many literary examples seem to have survived although they may still be available in manuscripts. From this evidence, it is clear that the musical play, was an important genre in the Sanskrit tradition. However, its full and vigorous flowering took place only in the early and the late medieval period. This is further supported by references to such dramatic musical recitals in the chronicle works also belonging to the ninth century A.D. and continuing until the eleventh and twelvth century.  Apart from the evidence which can be gathered from archaeological remains, sculptural reliefs, mural painting, extant works of Sanskrit literature and chronicle sources, there is the rich source of textual material normally called the manuals or treatises. It would appear that soon after the writing of the Natyasastra, works on aesthetic concerned themselves mainly with discussion on the nature of the aesthetic experience and the literary form. By about the sixth century A.D., two distinct types of texts appear, the first were purely theoretical works which discussed the nature ofaesthetic experience, the artistic, work and the evocation of an analogous aesthetic experience in the spectator, reader or participator. The second group of treatises concentrate on the techniques of communication. Understandably, therefore, several texts appear each concerning itselfwith either the word or sound, music, vocal or instrumental, and movement.

All the Puranas, particularly the earlypuranas, namely the Agni Purana, Vishnudharmottara Purana, contain valuable sections on poetry, music, dance, painting and drama. Alongside appear the special texts which devote themselves only to either music or dance or poetry. Amongst the most outstanding of these texts in the field of dance is Abhinaya Daipana by Nandikeshvara, a text solely devoted to dance. In the ninth and tenth century was also written the commentary on the Natyasastra byAbhinavagupta. He comments on all sections of the major fundamental text Natyasastra both from the point of view of philosophy as also form and technique ofthe arts. It is significant that this text written somewhere in Kashmir travelled to all parts of India. The commentary of Abhinavagupta began a newr phase of the evolution of different theories of aesthetic and artistic creation. To this second period (i.e. 2nd to 10th century) also belonged the construction ofstupas and temples. The railings and the gates ofstupas, the outer and inner wralls ofthe temples present a multitude oflife comprehending many aspects of the terrestrial world. Amongst these is the motifofthe dancer, the dance recital as also the dancing aspect of god and goddesses. Most important wras the selfconscious attemptto arrestin plastic form certain cadence ofmovement described in the fourth chapter ofthe Natyasastra.These are the phases of movement called theKaranas. Although earlycave sculpture such asthe caves ofAurangabad and Ellora clearly exhibited the sculptor’s technical knowledge ofthe dance, in the Brihadeshvara temple in Tanjore built in the eleventh century A.D., the first self-conscious attemptto presentserially these cadences ofmovement wras made. Popularly called the karanas, these reliefs by the sculptor attempt to capture either the initial or the intermediary or the final moment of a whole cadence of movement. This attempt at carving, sculpturing reliefbased on descriptions and performance wras repeated in other sites both in South India and in North India. In Tamil Nadu, three other major attempts were made to present the Karanas. The temples at Sarangpani, Eastern and Northern Gopuram of Chidambaram and the Gopuram of Tiruvannamallai all belong to the 12th, 13th and 14th century. All depict a series of reliefs with inscriptions of the names of the karanas. In North India, an attempt wTas made in Chittor. In the Kirti Stambha of Chittor, again a series of movements have been carved. Elsewhere also, the sculptor was inspired by the movements ofthe dance both as an impressionistic recreation and as a technical reconstruction. The Orissan temples ofBhuvanesvara and even earlier the stupas of Ratnagiri tell us of the preoccupation of the sculptor with the image of the dance. Men and women deities, gods and goddesses peep out ofinner recesses, stand out in the sunlight on thewalls ofthese temples.

Each ofthese figures, singly and collectively, makes for an overpowering orchestration of movement The temples of Raja Rani of Parasuramesvara and of Lingraja all reverberate with music and dance. Innumerable figures entwined with trees or pillars, holding birds, standing on animals or dwarfs smiling or more serious, are depicted in panel after panel on the outer walls ofthese temples. Looked at closely, one is impressed by the fact that the sculptor was not only a keen observer ofmovement, but was also a selfconscious illustrator ofthe basic positions i.e. the sthanas and the fundamental movements called the charis described in the Natyasastra. The monuments of Central India especially those ofKhajuraho built by the Chandelas, Udyeshwar of the Parmaras belonging to the 11th and 12th centuries also present a wide array ofmovement patterns from solo standing figures to figures in demipile or ardhamandali to groups and finally to the most impressive series of flying figures. The movement ofthe dance envelops these temples. As in Orissa, here also the dancing figure reaches out to the spectator from the lowermost panels to the highest lintels, from the ground to ceiling. Each is self-contained and yet each is part ofthe total orchestration ofthe sculptured figure as if it is a choreography of dance. This orchestration of choreography leaves a staggering impression of the popularity ofdance. Innumerable scenes of dance fill the pillars and toranas ofstupas, the walls ofmedieval temples ranging from Rajasthan and Saurashtra to Orissa, from Kashmir to Karnataka and Kerala, and the large Gopmams of South Indian temples, the platforms of the monuments of Vijayanagaram, of Hampi and of the Hazararam temple. All bear testimony to the sculptors’ and the painters’ innate fascination of movement. These sculptors and paintersrecord in stone and in painting, through line and colour what no chronicle could record in words. None ofthis would have been possible or could have achieved such a level of excellence had the experience of the dance not been the inner resource. The sculptor and the painter give form and shape to this deep perception of movement. Indeed, even after the tradition ofsculpturing reliefs on temple walls and painting on walls and ceilings waned, it continues in miniature paintings. Now the motif of the dance finds another expression, in the varied schools of Indian miniature painting. Some are inspired by Buddhist texts, others by Jaina themes, and yet others by Hindu Puranic myth and legend. However, in all these ranging from the illustrations of the Prajnaparmita of the Buddhists, the Kalpasutm ofthe .Jainas, to, of course, the Mrigavati, Akbamama, Bhagavata Puranci and Gita Govinda, there is prolific depiction ofdance. Sometimes, there are solos as in the case ofTiishila dance in the Kalpasutm. At other tunes, there are groups as in the case ofthe Dasmaskandha ofthe Bhagavata Purana.

At the level oftechnique, occasionally, it is only the painters’ expressionistic recreation of dance. At other tunes, it is a highly technical act ofnotation as in the ease of the marginal figures ofthe several Jaina Kalpasutras. This second period and the first half ofthe third period, is most important for a dance historian. During this period, the temples and the courts maintained a large number of dancers and dance was part of the ritual or the seva to the deity. The inscriptions on the temple walls of Brihadeshvara or elsewhere, the chronicles ranging from Rajatarangani to those ofMadala Panaji in Orissa tell us ofthe tradition of the maintenance of the temple dancers and the care and the thought which was given to support these traditions as part of the temple complex. The sculpture and the painting inscriptions records are only one source for reconstructing the history of dance during this period. Besides this, there is a body of critical writing and a sizeable volume of creative writing which reveals that the art was not only widely practised and given an important place in society both within the temple and without, but that there was a highly sophisticated critical appreciation of this art at the level of both theory and practice. Sangitaratnakara, Sarangadeva’s monumental treatise on music had set the new tone of musical practice. It also includes an exhaustive chapter on the dance. This chapter is ofvital importance for imderstanding the traditions of the dance as they were followed and as they developed in different parts of India. By and large, the writer follows the Natyasastra and occasionally the Abhinaya Daipana. However, he provides significant evidence pointing to the fact that, while the Natyasastra tradition was generally accepted, there were departures and modifications. Among the many new concepts, he introduces, is the concept ofstyle (paddhati) and the movements. He speaks of basic move¬ ments under two categories, viz., the pure (suddha) and the regional variants (desastha). Once again, he speaks ofthe purely classical or the academic form under the label of suddha, and the regional variants under the head of desi paddhatis. While Sarangadeva was not the first to introduce this concept, he was certainly the first to give it an authoritative sanction. Bhoja in his Sringaraprakasa and Somesvara in Manasollasa had already spoken of these concepts and had accepted regional styles. The recognition ofregional styles contributed greately to the further development of the individual, distinctive, classical styles ofthe various regions.

From the 13th century onwards, one can find manuals on dance from practically every region of the country. There is the Nrittaratnavali ofJaya Senapati from Andhra Pradesh, Sangitopanishat Sarodhara by Yachanacharya Sudhakalasa of Gujarat. Hastamuktavali ofAssam, Govinda Sangita Lila Vilasa from Manipur, Abhinaya Chandrika ofMahesvaraMahapatra from Orissa, Sangita Damodara of Raghunath from Bengal,AdiBharatam, Bharatamava andNrittaAdhyaya ofthe Sangitamakaranda, from Tamil Nadu, Balarama Bharatam and Hastalakshana  Dipika from Kerala, the Nrityaratnakosa by Kumbhakarana from Rajasthan and the Sangitamallika ofMoliammad Shah from North India. The listis notcomplete. In fact, it merely gives examples from the various regions of India. Even a superficial study ofthese manuals emphasizes two broad facts; first, that despite regional variations, all schools subscribed to the basic principles ofthe Natyasastra tradition. The dance continued to be divided into Natya and Niitta on the one hand and into Tandava and Lasya on the other. The second is that, although theycontinued to followthesebroadprinciples, manydistinctive regional styles evolved and each region ultimately developed a distinctive vocabulary. This second fact led to the formulation of different classical styles in India. The beginning of the contemporary classical styles be it Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Manipuri, Orissi or Kathak--can be traced back to developments in the medieval period, roughly dating from 1300 A.D. to 1800 A.D. In content and theme, dance was conditioned by the growth ofregional literary traditions which in turn were influenced by shifts in religious emphasis. Both the Gita Govinda and the Sangitaratnakara travelled to all parts of India. While the Sangitaratnakara reflects changes in the technique ofdance, Jayadeva’s Gita Govinda reflects the popularity of the theme in all parts of India.


Between the 11th and the 12tli Century A.D., there appearsto be a very sharp turn towards Vishnu and Krishna. Musical plays, for which Kaipuramanjari had already prepared the ground, were common; they were written in large numbers and were acted in temples and courtyards. Vidyapati wrote a musical play known as the Goraksha Vijaya which waswidelyperformed. Practically in all parts ofIndia, kirtans, bhajans, padas and harikathas wrere widely held wliich provided an immense scope for interpreting the musical wrord through gestures. As embodied in the songs ofthe saint-poets from all over India, the Vaishnavite tradition provided die various styles ofdance with an essential unity. Thematically many dance styles revolved round the Krishna’s lovestory especially as narrated in the tenth chapter of the Srimadbhagavata. In all parts of India, the literary type of musical composition was not merely an accompaniment The wrord wras important, because it wras what wTas being interpreted through mime. In the abstract portions, different talas mid different patterns of stylized movement evolved. The particular type ofstylized movement gave each style a distinguishing character. The different styles of classical Indian dance wrere practised and perfected by creative artistes in different regions even during periods of political upheaval and lack of social patronage. Family traditions, called the sampradayas, grewT within these styles; the masters wrere the repositories of an invaluable oral tradition, and as such preserved and nurtured it. They frequently contributed to its growlh in spite of the lack of basic education or academic knowledge of unfamiliarity with the Sanskrit language. The British system of education did not recognise the "aids" as a subject of educational curricula.

The generation which went to the schools and colleges, foimded by the British in India in the 19th Century, was thus isolated from the ail traditions ofthe country. Temple dancing was forbidden, but the devotees of the art continued to practise it in the seclusion of their homes. Apparently, the art had died by the 20th century and what could be seen of it was only a diluted, almost degenerated form ofwhat was known as the nautch in the North, and the sadir in the South. It was like a shadow ofbygone reality. The recent revival of interest in dance, developed as a sign of national pride in the glories ofindigenous art and culture, helped the development and popularity of our various dance styles. The storehouse was so rich and the layer of dust so vreak that the sincere artiste had only to dig a little to discover its essential luminosity. During the past five decades, many layers of past artistic glory have been uncovered. The digging continues and each time one delves deeper, a greater treasure is discovered. The classical dance styles of contemporary India are largely reconstructions of these fragments of antiquity. On one level, they have great antiquity wdiich links them writh the past, on another they are contemporary and recent, performed outside the traditional milieu and context, each tune recreating the past, but are not the past. Sometimes the content is old, but the form and technique newr; at others, nevT content is infused into an older format It is a subtle eclectic approach seemingly ancient but in fact an expression of modem sensibility. 

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Agni, the sacred fire, must be kept burning throughout a Brahmins life.The Brahmacarin or bachelor - student must perform the samidadhana everyday. After he is married, with Agni as witness, he becomes a grhastha (householder). He must now perform the aupasana in the fire. For the vanaprastha (forest recluse), there is a sacred fire called kaksagni. Know More

TAMBURA,BIN,VEENA (indian musical instruments)

The tambura (also called tanpura in the north) is one of the classical instruments of the stringed group. It is used all over India for drone accompaniment and its varieties are numberless. Know More

The Eight Qualities

The eight gunas or qualities are: daya, ksanti, anasuya, sauca, anayasa,mangala, akarpanya, asprha."Daya" implies love for all creatures, such love being the very fulfilment of life. There is indeed no greater happiness than that derived by loving others. Daya is the backbone of all qualities. Know More

MIGRATIONS (Instruments in Indian Sculpture)

The migration of Indian musical instruments to the countries surrounding India at an early period forms an interesting subject of study. In pre-Buddhist times, India seems to have had commercial and other relations with Egypt, Sumer and other Middle-Eastern regions. Archaeologists have discovered musical instru¬ ments similar to the yazh of the ancient Tamil country in Egypt and Babylon. Know More

Forts of Gujarat

DURING the Rajput period adequate attention was given to fortification’ Forts were called by different names depending on their location etc, e.g. Sivir, Vahinimukha, Sthariya, Samviddha, Kolaka, Nigama and Sikandhatva. Forts were of various types, e.g. Vanadurga, Salilidurga, Parighadurga, Pankjadurga, Dhanrvadurga, Sahayadurga, Sainyadurga. Some basic rules about construction of forts were laid. In shape they could be circular, square, rectangular; they were to be surrounded by moats, enclosing walls and ramparts, furnished with gates, circumambulating flights of steps and secret staircases in the interior. Know More

THE VEDIC PERIOD

Music and dance have been the chief forms of religious expression in India. The origin of music in India is attributed to gods and goddesses and to mytho¬ logical figures like gandharvas and kinnaras who figure in all the stories and legends connected with the science and practice of music. Know More

CHRONOLOGY

Sanskrit treatises on music and literature containing references to musical instruments begin from about the 3rd century B-c* In Barhut, Sanchi, Bhaja, etc., the artists of ancient India have sculptured various types of musical instruments in the scenes depicting the life of the Buddha. Know More

Three Types of Worlds

We speak of three worlds: devaloka (world of the celestials),manusyaloka (this world of ours), and naraka (hell). The first has nothing but pleasure; in the second it is a mixture of happiness and sorrow; and in the third there is nothing but pain and sorrow. Know More

FORTS OF INDIA(Amber)

THE Amber Fort near Jaipur is situated on the summit of a hill that commanded the regions lying to the north and south and the narrow passage which joins these two. Its powerful and extensive walls and towers enabled its rulers to prepare themselves for defence from inside. Know More

Instruments in Indian Sculpture

The polished, ivory-ornamented elegance of modern Indian musical instru¬ ments such as the veena, the sitar and the sarod affords little idea as to how primitive were the instruments from which they are descended. Know More

Paradise or the Path of Atmajnana?

Our worldly existence is a mixture of joys and sorrows. Some experience more joy than sorrow and some more sorrow. Then there may be a rare individual here or there who can control his mind and keep smiling even in the midst of sorrow. On the other hand, we do see a quite a number of people who have much to be happy about but who keep a long face. Know More

Sruti-Smriti - Srauta-Smarta

Those who follow the tradition of Acarya are called "Smartas". The word "Smarta" literally means one who adheres to the Smrtis. To say that the Acarya descended to earth to uphold the Vedas and that those who follow his path are Smartas implies that the Vedas and Smrtis are one.The rites that are not explicitly mentioned in the Vedas but are dealt with in the Smrtis are called Smarta karmas and those that are explicitly mentioned are called Srauta karmas. This does not mean that the Smarta rites are in anyway inferior to Srauta Know More

FORTS OF RAJASTHAN(Jodhpur)

ON an auspicious hour of 13 May 1459 Rao Jodha Singh laid the foundation of a fort and also commenced construction of the city which came to-be known after him as Jodhpur Fort and Jodhpur city, respectively. And, following the tradition, a person named Rajiya Bhati was butied alive in the foundation in the superstitious belief that such a course enhances longevity of the fort. Know More

The Source of Smritis is the Vedas

The best testimony to the claim that the Smrtis are founded on the Vedas is provided by the words of mahakavi (great poet). Sankara, Ramanuja and Madhva, the founders of our religio-philosophical systems, proclaim that our dharmasastras are in accord with the Vedas. But they had, each of them, a doctrine to establish. Know More

Smritis - not Independent Works

There is a wrong impression about the dharmasastras even among those who treat them with respect. They think that the rules and duties of the Smrtis were formulated by their authors on their own. They call theseauthors lawgivers who, in their opinion, laid down laws that reflect their own views. Know More

FORTS OF RAJASTHAN(Ranthambhore)

THE famous fort of Ranthambhore near Sawai Madhopur in Rajasthan, stands on an isolated rock 1578 feet above sea level and is surrounded by a massive wall strengthened by towers and bastions. The fortress witnessed many sieges and battles but today ail that is there are the remains of a palace, a mosque, tomb of a saint and barracks for the garrison. Know More

Freedom and Discipline

There is much talk today of freedom and democracy. In practice what do we see Freedom has come to mean the licence to do what one likes, to indulge ones every whim. The strong and the rough are free to harass the weak and the virtuous. Thus we recognise the need to keep people bound to certain laws and rules. However the restrictions must not be too many. Know More

FORTS OF INDIA (Rajasthan)

TO the rulers of states in Rajasthan, which literally means the Land of Kings and who claimed to be offsprings of the sun, moon or some such phenomenon, freedom was the most precious possession for which they considered no price, no sacrifice big enough. They could not compromise when any demand from their opponents clashed with their sense of self respect. Know More

Airavatesvara Temple, Darasuram

As one enters the Airavatesvara temple at Darasuram (pi. XI), one finds a large gopura, the upper por¬ tion ofwhich is completely lost but the form ofwhich may be imagined from the complete second (inner) gopura. The larger prakara-wall all around the temple, decorated with couchant bulls at intervals, is in continuation ofthe second gopura Know More

BRIHADl§VARA TEMPLE, GANGAIKONDACHOLAPURAM

The great monument at Gangaikondacholapuram, the second Brihadisvara Gangaikondacholesvara temple (pi. VI), rears its head nobly and bespeaks the imperial dignity of the capital that Rajendra (1012-44), the son ofRajaraja, established after his victorious march to east India up to the river Ganga. Know More

Sthala Puranas

Even those who respect the Puranas are not prepared to accept that the Sthala Puranas, that is the short Puranas pertaining to particular places,are authentic. If educated people think the [major] Puranas to be nothing but lies, they go so far as to treat the Sthala Puranas as nothing better than rubbish. Know More

BRIHADISVARA TEMPLE, THANJAVUR

Thanjavur attained prominence under the Cholas in the ninth century, Vijayalaya, the first great ruler of the dynasty (850-71), having captured it and made it his capital. The Brihadisvara temple is a symbol of the greatness of the Chola empire under its author, emperor Rajaraja (985-1012), whose splendour it reflects. Know More

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