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Why Differences among the Gods?

Each Purana is in the main devoted to a particular devata. In the Siva Purana it is stated: "Siva is the Supreme Being. He is the highest authority for creation, sustenance and dissolution. It is at his behest, and under him, that Visnu funtions as protector. Visnu is a mere bhogin, trapped in Maya. Siva is a yogin and jnana incarnate. Visnu is subject to Siva and worships him. Once when he opposed Siva he suffered humiliation at his hands". Stories are told to illustrate such assertions. Know More

Upa-puranas and Others

Apart from the 18 major Puranas there are an equal number of Upapuranas.Among them are the Vinayaka Purana and the Kalki Purana.There are also, in addition, a number of minor Puranas. The Puranas that speak of the glory of various months such as the Tula Purana, the Magha Purana and the Vaisakha Purana are parts included into the 18 major Puranas or Upa-puranas. Know More


Alexander’s campaign probably made an indirect impact on the further political development of India. Not much is known about the antecedents of Chandragupta Maurya, but it is said that he began his military career by fighting against the outposts which Alexander had left along the river Indus. Know More

Sankhya (Hindu Dharma)

According to Sankhya, the Atman is Purusa and is the basis of all, though,at the same time detached from everything. In its view Maya which keeps everything going is Prakriti. The cosmos is contained in 24 "tattvas" ["thatnesses" or principles or categories] of which Prakrti is one- Prakrti is indeed the first of these and it has the name of"pradhana Know More

Hand of the Vedapurusa

The sixth limb or Anga of the Vedapurusa is Kalpa, his hand. The hand is called "kara" since it does work (or since we work with it). In Telugu it is called “sey ". Kalpa is the sastra that involves you in "work". A man learns to chant the Vedas, studies Siksa, Vyakarana, Chandas, Nirukta and Jyotisa. What does he do next? He has to apply these sastras to the rites he is enjoined to perform. He has to wash away his sins, the sins earned by acting according to his whims. Know More

The Grahas and Human Life

The conditions of man correspond to the changes in the position of the nine grahas. A human being does not enjoy happiness all the time nor does he always suffer hardships-- that is he experiences a mixture of happiness and sorrow. While he may be pushed up to a high position today, he may be thrust down to the depths tomorrow. Know More

Planets, Stars

How do the planets differ from the stars The planets revolve round the sun; the stars do not belong to the sun mandala [they are not part of the solar system]. If you hold a diamond in your hand and keep shaking it about, it will glitter. The stars glitter in the same way and twinkle, but the planets do not twinkle. The sun and the stars are self-luminous Know More


The extension of the Vedic culture into the central and eastern Gangetic plains was as important for the further course of Indian history as the period of their early settlement in the Panjab and in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab. Know More

Ancient Mathematical Treatises

Jyotisa, as we have seen, consists of three sections. There was a scholarly man in the Matha who was particularly learned in this science. We wished to honour him with a title and decided upon "Triskandha- Bhaskara". "Skandha" literally means a big branch springing from the trunk of a tree. The three skandhas of Jyotisas are: siddhanta, hora and samhita. Know More

Eye of the Vedapurusa

Jyotisa, which is the science of the celestial bodies and the eye of the Vedapurusa, consists of three "skandhas" or sections. So it is called "Skandha-trayatmakam". Sages like Garga, Narada and arasura have written samhitas (treatises) on this subject. The sun god, in disguise, taught the science to Maya, the carpenter of the Asuras. The work incorporating his teachings is called the Suryasiddhanta. Know More

Ear of the Vedapurusa

Nirukta serves the purpose of a Vedic dictionary, or "kosa". A dictionary is also called a "nighantu", which term is used in Tamil also. Nirukta, which deals with the origin of words, their roots, that is with etymology, is the ear of the Vedapurusa. Know More

History Of India and the Environment

Environment—that is a world alive and related to a living centre, the habitat of an animal, the hunting grounds and pastures of nomads, the fields of settled peasants. For human beings the environment is both an objective ecological condition and a field of subjective experience. Know More

Vedic mantra

A Vedic mantra or the stanza of an ordinary poem is divided into four parts. In most metres there are four feet and each foot is divided into the same number of syllables or mantras. When the feet are not equal we have what is called a metre that is "visama": "vi+sama" = "visama"."Sama" indicates a state of non-difference,of evenness. Know More

Pada or Foot

I said Chandas is the foot of the Vedapurusa. Poetry also has its foot. In tamil poetry there are iradikkural (stanzas with two feet), naladiar(stanzas with four feet), etc: adi here has the same meaning as pada, that is foot. Naladiar does not mean four adiyars. Great devotees are called adiyars because they lie at the lotus feet of the Lord Know More


The largest building so far excavated is one at Mohenjo Daro with a superficial area of 230 x 78 feet Know More

The Story of Kalidas(The Princess of Kashi)

In ancient India, people aspired to achieve cultural refinement through learning. Sanskrit was the lingua franca and mastery of the language was considered a great achievement, sign of culture and an attribute of nobility. Know More

Foot of the Vedapurusa

Men of devotion say that the praises of the lord must be sung in Chanda-hamizh.Chanda (m) is derived from Chandas.Chandas, as I have already said, means the Vedas. Bhagavan says in the Gita that the Vedas are leaves of the pipal tree called Creation--Chandamsi yasya parnani. Instead of Veda, the Lord uses the word Chandas. However, the Chandas I am going to speak about does not mean the Vedas but prosody and represents the foot of the Vedapurusa. Know More


Goddess was associated with that of the bull, and these were no exception. Bull figurines have been discovered, and the bull forms a favourite motif for the decoration of the pottery of KullI and Rana Ghundal, one of the most important of the Zhob sites. Know More

Regarding Nataraja

Nataraja is the name of the dancing Paramesvara. Nata is a member of a troupe which also consists of the vita and gayaka The nata ances. Nataraja is the king of all dancers-- he who cannot be excelled as adancer-- and he is also called Mahanata [the great dancer]. The Amarakosa, the Sanskrit lexicon, has these two words: Mahakalo mahanatah. Know More

Mouth of the Vedapurusa

Vyakarana or grammar is the mukha of the Vedapurusa, his mouth. The Tamil word for grammar is illakanam. Grammar deals with the laksanas of a language. Laksmana(n) is llukkumanan in Tamil. In the same way, laksana(m) becomes illakanam in that language. There are a number of works on Sanskrit grammar. Know More

Other Notable Aspects of Siksa

The general rule is that the sound of the Vedas ought not to be changed, that there should be no tonal alterations. But there are rules permitting slight modifications based on the differences between the recensions - and these rules are according to the Siksa sastra. Know More


Like prehistoric Europe, Northern India experienced ice ages, and it was after the second of these, in the Second Interglacial Period, more than 100,000 years before Christ, that man first left surviving traces in India. Know More

Names of Months(Hindu Dharma)

you must have formed an idea of how the genius of one language differs from that of another. You may note this from how the original Sanskrit names of other months have changed in Tamil. Usually,as observed before, the name of a month is derived from the asterism under which the full moon falls in that month. Citra-purnima is a sacred day. Know More


The Bengal Society began to turn some of its attention to the material remains of India past, as the East India Companysurveyors brought back to Calcutta many reports of temples Know More

Impact of Siksa Sastra (Hindu Dharma)

In the foregoing we noticed that certain Vedic syllables had a special association with certain regions and that these were absorbed in the languages spoken there. We also learned from this that the Vedas flourished in all countries. There was never a period in Tamil Nadu, the land we know intimately when Vedic dharma was not practised there. Know More


How far this judgement is a fair one is very dubious. Though an element of quietism certainly existed in the ancient Indian attitude to life, as it does in India today, it was never approved by moralists. The great achievements of ancient India and Ceylon—their immense irrigation works and splendid temples, and the long campaigns of their armies—do not suggest a devitalized people. Know More


The ancient civilization of India grew up in a sharply demarcated sub-continent bounded on the north by the world’s largest mountain range—the chain of the Himalayas Know More

Sanskrit-The Universal Language

Sanskrit is the language of all mankind; it is an international language and also the language of the gods. The gods are called girvanas so Sanskritis called Gairvani. Know More

A Language that has all Phonemes is Sanskrit

From the foregoing it is clear that Sanskrit has the f sound. In fact thereis no sound vocalised by humans that is not present in that language.Zha is not, as is usually imagined, unique to Tamil. It exists in the Vedic language which is the source of Sanskrit. Know More

Linguistic Studies and Religion (Hindu Dharma)

After I said that I would deal with matters basic to our religion, I have been speaking about linguistic studies and grammar. Next I am going to deal with prosody. By works on religion we ordinarily mean those [directly] relating to God, worship, devotion, jnana, dharma and so on. Know More

Vedic Vocalisation and the Regional (Hindu Dharma)

Languages If we relate certain characteristics of the different languages of India to how Vedic chanting differs syllabically from region to region, we will discover the important fact that the genius of each of these tongues and the differences between them are based on how the Vedas are chanted in these regions. Know More

Importance of Enunciation and Intonation (mantra)

You must not go wrong either in the enunciation or intonation of a mantra. If you do, not only will you not gain the expected benefits from it, the result might well be contrary to what is intended. So the mantras must be chanted with the utmost care. . Know More

Aksamala (Hindu Dharma)

Rudraksa means the eye of Rudra or Siva. Rudraksa-mala is a garland (rosary) made up of such eyes. Aksa means eye. In Tamil the rudraksa is called tirukkanmani [the sacred pupil of the eye] Know More

Languages and Scripts: Indian and Foreign

A special feature of our language is that each syllable of every word ispronounced distinctly. Take the English word world The sound of the first syllable has no clear form; it is neither we nor wo. Then the letter r is slurred over. There are many such indistinct words in foreign tongues. Know More

Devanagari Script-Lipi (Hindu Dharma)

The evolution of the script of any language must be based on symbols or signs denoting various units of its speech (phonemes). Most of the European languages including English are written in the Roman script. There is a script called Brahmi and the Asokan edicts are in it. In fact it is from Brahmi that the scripts of most Indian languages have evolved and these include not only the Devanagari script in which Sanskrit is written but also the Tamil and Grantha scripts. Know More

Root Language - Sanskrit (Hindu Dharma)

In speaking about the Vedas I stated that the sound of a word was more important that its meaning. That reminds me. In the Vedic language called handas and in Sanskrit which is based on it, there are words the very sound of which denotes their meaning. Take the word Danta You know that it means a tooth. Know More

Greatness of the Vedas (Hindu Dharma)

The glory of the Vedas knows no bounds and it is manifested in the affairs of the world in a manner that defies comparison.Of all the sacred places on arth Kasi comes foremost. When we speak in praise of other hallowed centres, we say that they are equal to Kasi in holiness. From this we know the importance of that city. Know More

My Duty (Hindu Dharma)

My duty is to impress upon you again and again that it is your responsiblity to keep the Vedic tradition alive. Whether or not you listen to me, whether or not I am capable of making you do what I want you to do, so long as there is strength in me, I will keep telling you tirelessly:"This is your work. This is your dharma. Know More

Veda-bhasya (Hindu Dharma)

The sound of the Vedas must be kept alive. For this purpose, it would be enough if Brahmins memorised the mantras and chanted them every day.The power of the sound, the power of the mantras vocalised, is sufficient to bring good to mankind. I said, you will remember, that chanting the Vedas with faith, even though without knowing their meaning, is “viryavattaram". Know More

Duty of Brahmins (Hindu Dharma )

Every day you must perform “Brahmayajna" which is one of the five great sacrifices ( mahayajnas). The term "Brahma" in “Brahmayajna" means the Vedas. The power of the mantras must be preserved in us as an eternal reality. It must burn bright like a lamp that is never extinguished. For this reason it is that we perform Brahmayajna. Know More

Brahmins and Non-Brahmins (Hindu Dharma)

Even if they do not have to perform Vedic rituals or chant mantras, they too have to become cleansed inwardly by doing their alloted work. Whatever his caste or jati, if a man performs his hereditary work in a spirit of dedication to Isvara he will become liberated. This is stated clearly in the Gita:"Svakaramana tam abhyarcya siddhim vindati manavah. " Know More

Vedic Sakhas (Hindu Dharma )

When the Vedas are said to have no end, how can one talk of there being an "end to the Vedas (Vedanta)"? The mesage of the Vedas, the truths proclaimed by them, the teachings with respect to self-realisation occur in the concluding part (Upanisads) of each of the Vedas, that is Vedanta. Know More

Essence of the Upanisadic Teaching (Hindu Dharma)

The phenomenal universe, in the view of modern science, is embraced by the concepts of time and space [It exists in the time-space frame]. The panisads declare that only by being freed from time and space factors can we grasp the ultimate truth that is at the source of the cosmos. I told you about the horizon - where we are right there the horizon is. Recognition of this truth takes us beyond space. In this way we must also try to transcend time. Know More

What do the Vedas Teach Us? (Hindu Dharma)

The Vedas speak of a variety of matters. So how are we to accept the view that their most important teaching is the concept of Self-realisation expounded in the Upanisads constituting the Vedanta? They mention a number of sacrifices like agnihotra, somayaga, sattra and isti and other rituals in addition. Know More

The Ten Upanasids (Hindu Dharma)

Sankara Bhagavatpada selected ten out of the numerous Upanisads to comment upon from the non-dualistic point of view. Ramanuja, Madhva and others who came after him wrote commentaries on the same based on their own philosophical points of view. These ten Upanisads are listed in the following stanza for the names to be easily remembered. Know More

The Rig Veda Later and Lesser Gods.

The Rig veda is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. It is one of the four sacred canonical texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas Later and Lesser Gods. Know More

The Brahmasutra (Hindu Dharma)

I said that every doctrine or system has a sutra (text consisting of aphoristic statements), a bhasya (commentary) and a vartika (elucidation of the commentary). The systems founded by Sankara, Ramanuja, Madhva, Srikantha (acarya of Saiva-Sidhanta) belong to Vedanta. All these acaryas cite the authority of the Vedas in support of their respective doctrines and they have chosen the same ten Upanisads to comment upon according to their different philosophical perceptions. Know More

The Rig Veda The Sun and Dawn Myth Part 5

The Rig veda is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. It is one of the four sacred canonical texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas. The Rig veda is the oldest known Vedic Sanskrit text. Its early layers are one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. Know More

The Upanisads (Hindu Dharma)

The Upanisads come at the close of the Aranyakas. If the Samhita is the tree, the Brahmana the flower and the Aranyaka the fruit (i. e. in its unripe stage), the Upanishads are the mellow fruit - the final fruit or "phala". The Upanisads are to the seeker the direct means of realising the non-difference between the jivatman (individual self) and the Paramatman. Know More

The Four Vedas(Hindu Dharma)

"Anantah vai Vedah", the Vedas are unending. The seers have, however, revealed to us only a small part of them but it is sufficient for our welfare in this world and next. We are not going to create many universes like Brahma that we should know all the Vedas. We need to know only as many as are necessary to ensure our good in this world. Know More

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